LONDON — The highest financial officers from the world’s superior economies reached a breakthrough on Saturday in their yearslong efforts to overtake worldwide tax legal guidelines, unveiling a broad settlement that goals to cease giant multinational firms from looking for out tax havens and drive them to pay extra of their revenue to governments.

Finance leaders from the Group of seven nations agreed to again a new global minimum tax rate of at the least 15 p.c that firms must pay no matter the place they find their headquarters.

The settlement would additionally impose a further tax on a few of the largest multinational firms, probably forcing know-how giants like Amazon, Fb and Google in addition to different large world companies to pay taxes to nations primarily based on the place their items or companies are bought, no matter whether or not they have a bodily presence in that nation.

Officers described the pact as a historic settlement that would reshape world commerce and solidify public funds which have been eroded after greater than a 12 months of combating the coronavirus pandemic. The deal comes after a number of years of fraught negotiations and, if enacted, would reverse a race to the underside on worldwide tax charges. It could additionally put to relaxation a battle between the USA and Europe over learn how to tax large know-how firms.

Rishi Sunak, Britain’s chancellor of the Exchequer, introduced the settlement and hailed it as a deal that might make the worldwide tax system “match for the worldwide digital age” and would guarantee “the suitable firms pay the suitable tax in the suitable locations.”

Whereas the settlement is a significant step ahead, many challenges stay. Subsequent month, the Group of seven nations should promote the idea to finance ministers from the broader Group of 20 nations which are assembly in Italy. If that’s profitable, officers hope {that a} last deal might be signed by Group of 20 leaders once they reconvene in October.

Garnering wider help is not going to be simple. Eire, which has a tax fee of 12.5 p.c, has come out in opposition to the worldwide minimal tax, arguing that it will be disruptive to its financial mannequin. Some main nations equivalent to China have been quietly monitoring the proceedings however are thought-about unlikely to purchase in. Finance officers imagine that if sufficient superior economies signal on, then different nations will likely be compelled to comply with go well with and so they plan to exert political stress on Eire to affix the settlement.

The Biden administration has been particularly eager to succeed in an settlement as a result of a worldwide minimal tax is carefully tied to its plans to lift the company tax fee in the USA to twenty-eight p.c from 21 p.c to assist pay for the president’s infrastructure proposal.

Enterprise lobbyists and Republican lawmakers have warned that doing so will make American firms much less aggressive than their worldwide counterparts and result in extra offshoring.

Treasury Secretary Janet L. Yellen and different administration officers have mentioned that getting different nations to associate with a base tax fee on abroad income would decrease any drawback to American firms and make them much less more likely to transfer their operations to nations with decrease taxes.

She described the settlement as “vital” and “unprecedented.”

“That world minimal tax would finish the race to the underside in company taxation, and guarantee equity for the center class and dealing individuals within the U.S. and world wide,” she mentioned in a press release. “The worldwide minimal tax would additionally assist the worldwide economic system thrive, by leveling the enjoying area for companies and inspiring nations to compete on constructive bases, equivalent to educating and coaching our work forces and investing in analysis and improvement and infrastructure.”

The Group of seven delegations, which signify Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the USA, negotiated late into Friday to hash out particulars of how the brand new tax techniques would work and the language within the assertion.

France, which had been pushing for a tax fee above 15 p.c, needed to make sure that there stays flexibility for the tax to be increased. America was pushing European nations to get rid of their digital companies taxes, which the administration says unfairly goal American know-how firms. France, Italy and Britain have resisted abandoning these taxes till the settlement is completed and in place — a course of that would take as much as 4 years.

The joint assertion, or communiqué, launched on Saturday urged that the digital taxes would stay in place for now.

“We are going to present for applicable coordination between the applying of the brand new worldwide tax guidelines and the removing of all digital companies taxes, and different related related measures, on all firms,” the assertion mentioned.

To stop particular person nations from imposing dozens of digital taxes world wide, the settlement reached Saturday would apply a brand new tax to giant companies with a revenue margin of at the least 10 p.c. The finance ministers agreed that the tax could be utilized to at the least 20 p.c of revenue exceeding that 10 p.c margin “for the most important and most worthwhile multinational enterprises.”

At a information convention on Saturday, Ms. Yellen mentioned she anticipated the most important American know-how corporations would face the levy. Nonetheless, Ms. Yellen mentioned she anticipated that they might respect the extra certainty the deal would deliver, even when it resulted in paying extra taxes.

Bruno Le Maire, France’s finance minister, applauded the settlement as bold and mentioned that his nation would proceed to push for a worldwide minimal tax fee above 15 p.c.

“This settlement will make it potential to tax the digital giants, and for the primary time to implement a minimal company tax fee to crack down on tax dumping,” he mentioned on Saturday. “As talks proceed, France will purpose for the very best potential minimal tax fee to place an finish to the race to the underside in sure nations.”

Big sums of cash are at stake. A report this month from the EU Tax Observatory estimated {that a} 15 p.c minimal tax would yield a further 48 billion euros, or $58 billion, a 12 months. The Biden administration projected in its funds final month that the brand new world minimal tax system may assist usher in $500 billion in tax income over a decade to the USA.

The plan may face resistance from giant firms and the world’s greatest firms have been absorbing the event on Saturday.

“We strongly help the work being accomplished to replace worldwide tax guidelines,” mentioned José Castañeda, a Google spokesman. “We hope nations proceed to work collectively to make sure a balanced and sturdy settlement will likely be finalized quickly.”

Nick Clegg, the vp of worldwide affairs at Fb, wrote on Twitter that “we wish the worldwide tax reform course of to succeed and acknowledge this might imply Fb paying extra tax, and somewhere else.”

Manal Corwin, a former Treasury Division official within the Obama administration who now leads the Washington nationwide tax observe at KPMG, mentioned that the settlement that was revealed on Saturday leaves many unanswered questions on scope which are related to which firms will likely be lined. She pointed to the income threshold and whether or not firms will likely be required to phase strains of enterprise in measuring margin and revenue.

“With out solutions to those open questions, it’s troublesome to find out which firms will likely be in or out,” Ms. Corwin mentioned.

The settlement signaled a return to comity among the many membership of rich nations, which was fractured in recent times because the Trump administration imposed tariffs on American allies, however has regained its footing since President Biden took workplace. Final 12 months, the Treasury secretary on the time, Steven Mnuchin, deserted the talks after negotiations over the digital taxes stalled and President Donald J. Trump ready retaliatory tariffs in opposition to nations that deliberate to tax American know-how firms.

The negotiations regained momentum this 12 months after Ms. Yellen provided new proposals that succeeded in breaking the gridlock. She urged a worldwide minimal tax fee of at the least 15 p.c and proposed changing European digital companies taxes with a brand new levy on the world’s largest 100 firms that might be primarily based on the place an organization sells its items or companies, no matter whether or not it additionally has a bodily presence in these nations.

Mr. Le Maire mentioned that Ms. Yellen’s involvement was pivotal.

“Let’s be clear, we’ve got somebody with whom it’s simple to debate, simple to construct compromises and straightforward to bridge some gaps between the totally different nations,” he mentioned.

Ms. Yellen urged that the success of the assembly was an indication that the times of “America First” have been over.

“I imagine what you’re seeing is a revival of multilateralism,” she mentioned.

Mathias Cormann, the secretary normal of the Group for Financial Cooperation and Improvement, mentioned the settlement was a vital step towards gaining broader world acceptance of a minimal tax.

“There’s necessary work left to do,” he mentioned in a press release. “However this choice provides necessary momentum to the approaching discussions among the many 139 member nations and jurisdictions.”

Regardless of the breakthrough, finishing such a sweeping settlement is not going to be simple and the specter of a commerce struggle stays if nations preserve their digital companies taxes in place. The Biden administration said this month that it was ready to maneuver ahead with tariffs on about $2.1 billion price of products from Austria, Britain, India, Italy, Spain and Turkey in retaliation for his or her digital taxes. Nevertheless, it’s preserving them on maintain whereas the tax negotiations unfold.

Ending such a big settlement by the top of the 12 months might be overly optimistic given the variety of transferring components and nations concerned.

“An in depth settlement on one thing of this complexity in a couple of months would simply be lighting pace,” mentioned Nathan Sheets, a former Treasury Division beneath secretary for worldwide affairs within the Obama administration.

The largest impediment to getting a deal completed may come from the USA. The Biden administration should win approval from a narrowly divided Congress to make modifications to the tax code and Republicans have proven resistance to Mr. Biden’s plans. American companies will bear the brunt of the brand new taxes and Republican lawmakers have argued that the White Home is ceding tax authority to overseas nations.

Consultant Kevin Brady of Texas, the highest Republican on the Home Methods and Means Committee, mentioned on Friday that he didn’t imagine {that a} 15 p.c world minimal tax would curb offshoring.

“If the American company tax fee is 28 p.c, and the worldwide tax fee is merely half of that, you possibly can assure we’ll see a second wave of U.S. funding analysis manufacturing hit abroad, that’s not what we wish,” Mr. Brady mentioned.

On the information convention, Ms. Yellen famous that prime Democrats within the Home and Senate had expressed help for the tax modifications that the Biden administration was making an attempt to make.

“We are going to work with Congress,” she mentioned.

Liz Alderman contributed reporting from Paris.